PICO/T is a way to format a research question. It can also get you started with keywords for your literature search (state of the science)
P = Population of interest (consider age, gender, race, ethnicity, disease process, comorbidities)
I = Intervention (exposure to disease, prognostic factor A, risk behaviors, treatment, what do you want to do for this population? what could be done better?)
C = Comparison of interest (no comparison, placebo, prognostic factor B, absence of risk behavior, other treatments - "gold standard")
O = Outcome of interest (what result are you looking for? risk of disease, rate of occurrence of adverse outcomes like illness, comorbidity, or death)
T = Time (how long does it take to demonstrate an outcome? how long are participants observed? - if relevant to your question)
s = Study types (if relevant to your question)
1. P = menopausal women; I = cranberry juice; C = no cranberry juice; O = incidence of UTI
In menopausal women, does drinking 1 cup of cranberry juice daily versus not drinking any cranberry juice lower the incidence of urinary tract infections?
Initial Keywords: menopause, cranberry juice, urinary tract infections
2. P = adults with arthritis; I = tomatoes; C = No comparison; O = increased joint pain
Do tomatoes worsen joint pain in adults with arthritis?
Initial Keywords: tomatoes, arthritis, pain
Godshall, M. (2016). Fast facts for evidence-based practice in nursing (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company. DOI 10.1891/9780826194077
Meta-analysis; Systematic Reviews of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)
Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
Quasi-experimental Studies (Controlled trials without randomization)
Cohort Studies (epidemiologic); Case-controlled Studies (epidemiologic)
Systematic reviews of Descriptive Studies; Systematic reviews of Qualitative studies (meta-synthesis); Correlational Studies
Single Descriptive Study; Single Qualitative Study; Case Series Studies; Case Reports; Concept Analysis
Opinion; Reports of Expert Committees; Manufacturer's Recommendations; Traditional Literature Reviews
Based on: Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. (2019). Evidence-Based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
(the following will allow you to limit to evidence based practice)
Clinical Study: automatically includes Clinical Trial, Controlled Clinical Trial, Randomized Clinical Trial, Observational Study
Comparative Study = comparison of outcomes, results, etc for different techniques, therapeutic approaches or other inputs.
Meta-Analysis = (multi-study) - studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness.
Multicenter Study = a study executed by several institutions
Systematic Reviews = (multi-study) - review of primary literature that attempts to identify, appraise, and synthesize all empirical evidence that meets specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Systematic Reviews are NOT the same as Literature Reviews. Literature Reviews are NOT EBP.
Evaluation Study = studies determining the effectiveness of processes, personnel, and equipment
Validation Study = research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established
Practice Guidelines: most are EBP, but some are still opinion-based. You will need to review the guideline to ensure it is EBP.