PICO/T is a way to format a research question. It can also get you started with keywords for your literature search (state of the science)
P = Population of interest (consider age, gender, race, ethnicity, disease process, comorbidities)
I = Intervention (exposure to disease, prognostic factor A, risk behaviors, treatment, what do you want to do for this population? what could be done better?)
C = Comparison of interest (no comparison, placebo, prognostic factor B, absence of risk behavior, other treatments - "gold standard")
O = Outcome of interest (what result are you looking for? risk of disease, rate of occurrence of adverse outcomes like illness, comorbidity, or death)
T = Time (how long does it take to demonstrate an outcome? how long are participants observed?)
1. P = menopausal women; I = cranberry juice; C = no cranberry juice; O = incidence of UTI
In menopausal women, does drinking 1 cup of cranberry juice daily versus not drinking any cranberry juice lower the incidence of urinary tract infections?
Initial Keywords: menopause, cranberry juice, urinary tract infections
2. P = adults with arthritis; I = tomatoes; C = No comparison; O = increased joint pain
Do tomatoes worsen joint pain in adults with arthritis?
Initial Keywords: tomatoes, arthritis, pain
Godshall, M. (2016). Fast facts for evidence-based practice in nursing (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company. DOI 10.1891/9780826194077
The following Article Types will allow you to limit to evidence based practice:
includes: Clinical Trial, Controlled Clinical Trial
Randomized Clinical Trial, Observational Study
|Comparative Study|| Meta-Analysis
Evaluation Study = studies determining the effectiveness or utility of processes, personnel, and equipment
Validation Study = research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established
Remember, Systematic Reviews (Article Type) will also include Literature Reviews in the results. They are NOT the same. Literature Reviews are NOT EBP. You will need to evaluate the article to determine the type of Review.
Practice Guidelines: most are EBP, but some are still opinion-based. You will need to review the guideline to ensure it is EBP.
Epidemologic Research in PubMed:
Qualitative Research Aids
The handout demonstrates how to set database limits to retrieve article citations from Nursing journals.
Nursing-specific literature also includes articles authored by nurses. The best way to determine nurse authorship is to search or verify author affiliation - look for Colleges or Departments of Nursing. Both PubMed and CINAHL can search the Affiliation field; search using the term nursing.
Need to find Primary research or single/individual studies? See the tutorial below
How do you know if an article is EBN / EBP? See the tutorial link below